The International Enforcement Law Reporter

The International Enforcement Law Reporter is a monthly print and online journal covering news and trends in international enforcement law.

Since September 1985, the International Enforcement Law Reporter has analyzed the premier developments in both the substantive and procedural aspects of international enforcement law. Read by practitioners, academics, and politicians, the IELR is a valuable guide to the difficult and dynamic field of international law.

G7 and EU Security Ministers Agree to Cooperate on Countering Racially and Ethnically Motivated Extremism

Saturday, September 18, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

                On September 8-9, 2021, the G7 and EU Security Ministers, along with the Secretary General of INTERPOL, and U.S. Attorney General Merrick B. Garland and Deputy Attorney General Lisa O. Monaco, met remotely to discuss responding to the rapidly evolving events in Afghanistan, as well as countering racially and ethnically motivated extremism.[1]



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, Justice Department Participates Virtually at G7 meeting with Security Ministers, Sept. 9, 2021.

 

The Gambia Will not accept Expelled Gambian Nationals from the EU

Thursday, September 16, 2021
Author: 
Marwah Adhoob
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

In late August 2021, the Gambian government announced that any migrants wanting to return home to The Gambia would not be allowed to enter. The Banjul administration said it would not allow any flights carrying Gambian migrants coming from the EU. [1]



[1]    David Coffey, Gambia says migrants expelled from EU are not welcome home, rfi, Aug. 28, 2021, https://www.rfi.fr/en/africa/20210828-gambia-says-migrants-expelled-from-eu-are-not-welcome-home.

 

U.S. Prosecution of Three Wildlife Trafficking Violations Shows the Rising Incidence of Violations

Tuesday, September 14, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

In August and September, the United States has prosecuted three cases for wildlife trafficking.  On August 11, 2021, the U.S. Court in Anchorage, Alaska, sentenced an Anchorage man to six months home confinement and more than $400,000 in fines and restitution for illegally trafficking in walrus ivory and failure to report business income to the IRS.[1]  On August 31, 2021, the U.S. District Court in the Eastern District of Virginia sentenced a Virginia man for selling elephant and whale ivory online in violation of the Endangered Species Act.[2]  On September 3, a U.S. District Court sentenced a Mexican national to three years in prison to be followed by three years of supervised release for his role in a conspiracy to smuggle protected reptiles from Mexico to the United States.[3]



[1]    U.S. Attorney’s Office District of Alaska, Anchorage Businessman Convicted and Sentenced for Walrus Ivory Trafficking and Tax Evasion, Press Rel. 21-57, Aug. 11, 2021.

[2]    Bridget Macdonald, Buyer beware:  Virginia man sentenced for selling elephant and whale ivory online in violation of the Endangered Species Act, https://medium.com/usfishandwildlifeservicenortheast/buyer-beware-701561685eb6, Aug. 31, 2021.

[3]    U.S. Department of Justice, Mexican National Sentenced for Trafficking in Wildlife, Press Rel. No. 21-836, Sept. 3, 2021.

 

Spain Arrests Former Venezuela Intelligence Chief on U.S. Extradition for Narcotics Charges

Tuesday, September 14, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

On September 10, 2021, United States law enforcement announced that the Spanish police arrested the day before former Venezuelan official Hugo Armando Carvajal Barrios, a/k/a “El Pollo” in Madrid, Spain.  His arrest responded to the U.S. extradition request pursuant to an indictment charging Carvajal Barrios with participating in a narco-terrorism conspiracy and a conspiracy to import cocaine into the U.S., including a 5.6-ton shipment of cocaine sent from Venezuela to Mexico in April 2006, along with related firearm offenses.  Spanish authorities initially arrested Carvajal Barrios in April 2019.  Later that year, the Spanish National Court approved Carvajal Barrios’s extradition to the U.S.  Thereafter, Carvajal Barrios became a fugitive.[1]



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, Former Venezuelan Official Hugo Armando Carvajal Barrios Arrested Again in Spain in Connection with Narco-Terrorism, Firearms, and Drug Trafficking Charges, Press Rel. No. 21-235, Sept. 10, 2021.

 

French Supreme Court Overturns Dismissal of Complicity for Crimes against Humanity against Lafarge in Syria

Saturday, September 11, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

On September 7, 2021, the French Supreme Court (Court of Cassation) overturned the decision of the Paris Court of Appeal, dismissing a charge of complicity in crimes against humanity against Lafarge, now part of Switzerland-listed Holcim.  After an internal investigation, Lafarge admitted that its Syrian subsidiary paid armed groups to protect its workers at its Syrian plant.

U.S. Corporation Sentenced for Importing Illegal Amazonian Wood from Peru

Friday, September 10, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

On September 3, 2021, Global Plywood and Lumber Trading LLC (Global Plywood) received a sentence for importing illegally-sourced timber from the Peruvian Amazon into the United States in violation of the Lacey Act.[1]



[1]    U.S. Department of Justice, U.S. Corporation Sentenced for Importing Illegally-Sourced Wood from the Amazon, Press Rel. No. 21-836, Sept. 3, 2021.

 

Director and Promoter of BitConnect Pleads Guilty in $2 Bn Cryptocurrency Scheme and SEC Brings Complaint

Friday, September 10, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

                On September 1, 2031, Glenn Arcaro of Los Angeles pleaded guilty in U.S. District Court in San Diego for his participation in a massive conspiracy involving BitConnect, a cryptocurrency investment scheme, which defrauded investors from the United States and abroad of over $2 billion.  U.S. law enforcement believes the BitConnect scheme is the largest cryptocurrency fraud ever charged criminally.[1] In a parallel action, on September 1, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission announced civil charges against Arcaro and three others in connection with the same conduct.[2]



[1]    U.S. Attorneys Office Southern District of California, Director and Promoter of BitConnect Pleads Guilty in Global $2 Billion Cryptocurrency Scheme, Press Rel., Sept. 1, 2021.

[2]   SEC v. BitConnect, U.S. Dist. Court, S.D.N.Y., COMPLAINT 21 Civ. 7349 (     ).  For the complaint see chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sec.gov%2Flitigation%2Fcomplaints%2F2021%2Fcomp-pr2021-172.pdf&clen=...  for a predecessor action see SEC v. Trevon Brown et al, U.S. District Court, S.D.N.Y.,  Complaint 21 Civ. 4791, May 28, 2021 chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/viewer.html?pdfurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.sec.gov%2Flitigation%2Fcomplaints%2F2021%2Fcomp-pr2021-90.pdf&clen=4....

 

Mexican Government Sues U.S. Arms Manufacturers for Illicit Trafficking in Arms

Tuesday, August 31, 2021
Author: 
Bruce Zagaris
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

On August 4, 2021, the Mexican government filed a civil lawsuit in the U.S. District Court in the District of Massachusetts against six gun manufacturers and one wholesaler in the United States, alleging they have violated U.S. state and federal laws and Mexican laws concerning arms trafficking.  The 139-page complaint alleges that the gun manufacturers design assault-weapons for distribution to narcotics cartels and transnational organized crime groups in Mexico.[1]



[1]    Estados Unidos Mexicanos v. Smith-Wesson Brands, Inc. et al., U.S. Dist. Ct., D. Mass, Case 1:21-cv-11269, Complaint, Aug. 4, 2021 https://apps.npr.org/documents/document.html?id=21037879-mexican-comp.

 

ECOWAS Demands Answers in Alleged Detention of Mali’s Former Interim Leaders

Monday, August 30, 2021
Author: 
Marwah Adhoob
Volume: 
37
Issue: 
9
Abstract: 

Ex-leader Mali leaders Moctar Ouane and Bah Ndaw are allegedly detained without cause. The West Africa court of justice of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) is now demanding answers. [1]



[1] West Africa: ECOWAS Demands Justification for Detention of Mali's Former Interim Leaders, All Africa, Aug. 21,2021, https://allafrica.com/stories/202108230023.html

 

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